As the nation celebrates its 75th Independence Day, thanks was offered for the sacrifice of the founding fathers to carve out a homeland free from the British and India.
However, not many are aware of many Pakistan Movement heroes and the struggle they made for the creation of Pakistan and then after Independence, to sustain the new country.
We have listed below several Pakistan Movement heroes.
Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Muhammad Ali Jinnah led the All-India Muslim League until the emergence of Pakistan as a new country on August 14, 1947, and then as Pakistan’s first Governor-General. He advocated Hindu–Muslim unity and was termed an ambassador of unity. His suggested 14-point constitutional reform plan to safeguard the political rights of Muslims in British India formed the basis of the modern Pakistani state.
Iqbal was a poet-philosopher. In 1930, Iqbal addressed the 25th Session of the All-India Muslim League in Allahabad where he expressed his thoughts on Islam and nationalism, unity of the Indian nation and another on the problems of defence - and he unveiled his vision for the creation of a separate homeland for India’s Muslims. This vision captured the imaginations of millions. Jinnah gave physical form to this vision in the form of the Pakistan movement.
Sir Syed Ahmad Khan
Sir Syed Ahmed Khan was an Islamic scholar and philosopher. He knew the educational backwardness of Muslims and their ignorance of the political current put them at a disadvantage. To educate Muslims, he began publishing the journal Tehzeeb-ul-Akhlaq (Social Reformer) and promoting reforms in Muslim society. He founded ‘The Aligarh Movement’ and propounded the Two-nation theory that became the basis of the vision for Pakistan.
Nawab Viqar-ul-Mulk was a Muslim politician. Known for his involvement in Aligarh Movement, he worked with Sir Aga Khan, Sir Shafi and Nawab Salim-ul-Khan to organize a Mohammedan Educational Conference. On the same occasion, they also launched a new party called the All India Muslim League which later became the center of the Pakistan movement. His magnetizing personality induced Muhammad Ali Jinnah to join the All India Muslim League.
Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk was a strong supporter of Sir Syed Ahmad Khan’s vision and the Aligarh Movement. Served in Aligarh propagating the message of the Aligarh Movement. Together with his brother Viqar, he formed the All India Muslim League and drafted the constitution for the party which would go on to help form a new homeland in the subcontinent.
Sir Aga Khan III
Sir Aga Khan was the president of the All India Muslim League. He suggested a separate electorate for Muslims of British India in a meeting with Viceroy Lord Rippon. He believed that once Muslims obtained a separate electorate, they must have a political organization as well and backed the formation of the All India Muslim League. He even wrote A Bill of Muslim Rights. He was a staunch supporter of the creation of Pakistan and played an instrumental role in the country’s early years.
Sir Abdullah Haroon
Sir Abdullah Haroon was closely associated with the Khilafat Movement and served as the President of the Sind Provincial Khilafat Committee. Later he was elected as the President of the All India Central Khilafat Committee. He played a prominent role in the separation of Sind from Bombay. Together with Muhammad Ali Jinnah, he founded the Dawn newspaper which became a voice for Muslims in the Indian subcontinent.
Liaquat Ali Khan
Nawab Liaquat Ali Khan was a prominent Muslim politician and ultimately became the right-hand man of Muhammad Ali Jinnah in the Pakistan Movement. He was elected to the Central Legislative Assembly, where, as deputy leader of the Muslim League party, he strengthened the demand for a separate homeland. Liaquat moved a resolution incorporating the objectives of the Pakistan Resolution in the ‘aims and objectives of the Muslim League. After Partition, he was appointed as Pakistan’s first prime minister. As prime minister he set about setting up the framework for running the new country, including groundwork for Pakistan’s foreign policy and taking steps towards formulating the first constitution of the country.
Qazi Mohammad Isa
Qazi Muhammad Isa was a trusted lieutenant working under the leadership of Jinnah for an independent Pakistan. Due to his hard work, the Muslim League politically entered Balochistan. In less than seven years he traveled more than 300,000 miles distance to campaign for Pakistan. Founder of pro-League weekly “Al-Islam” he spread the message of the Muslim League to inhabitants of the province.
Chaudhry Rahmat Ali
Chaudhry Rehmat Ali was a prominent Pakistan Movement leader. He is most recognized for coining the name of our great nation: “Pakistan”. He helped establish the Pakistan National Movement, with its headquarters at Cambridge. In his first memorable pamphlet “Now or Never; Are we to live or perish forever?” he detailed reasons for the establishment of a separate nation and coined its name Pakistan. After its formation in 1947, he argued on its behalf at the United Nation over the issue of Kashmir and the rights of the Muslim minority of India.
Begum Shaista Ikramullah
Begum Shaista Ikramullah was an active member of the Pakistan Movement. Of the two women in the first legislative body of Pakistan in 1947, she was the second with Begum Jehan Ara Shah Nawaz. Together they made untiring efforts to develop and get the “Islamic Personal Law of Shariah” approved.
Begum Jehan Ara Shah Nawaz
Begum Jehan Ara Shah Nawaz was a prominent member of the All India Muslim Women’s Conference and the president of its provincial chapter. She was a leading activist for the Pakistan Movement. She founded the Punjab Provincial Women’s Muslim League. Together with begum Shaista Ikramullah, she made untiring efforts to get the “Islamic Personal Law of Shariah” approved.
Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali Khan
Begum Ra’ana Liaquat Ali Khan was a prominent Muslim woman leader. She struggled till the independence of the Muslims of India in 1947. After Independence and the murder of her husband Liaquat Ali Khan, Begum Ra’ana took the lead in starting the women’s voluntary service. She arranged a conference of over 100 active women from all over the country. This conference became the foundation for the formation of a voluntary and non-political organization for the social, educational and cultural uplift of women, called the All Pakistan Women Association (APWA).
Fatima Jinnah was a member of the working committee of the Bombay Provincial Muslim League. A close confidant and supporter of her brother Muhammad Ali Jinnah, she worked tirelessly for the Pakistan Movement and propagated the movement amongst women. After Independence, she co-founded the Pakistan Women’s Association for the rehabilitation of women migrants from India in the new-born country.
Lady Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah
Lady Ghulam Hussain Hidayatullah joined the All India Muslim League as a worker in 1938. In 1947, months before Independence, she led a march onto the Civil Secretariat in Lahore where she scaled the building and replaced the Union Jack at the top of the building and hoisted the Muslim League flag. At the annual session of the All India Muslim League held in Karachi, she was elected as the president of the Women’s Reception Committee. During the Partition riots, she actively worked with the refugees to alleviate their suffering.
Lady Nusrat Abdullah Haroon
Lady Nusrat Abdullah Haroon entered the political arena in support of the Khilafat Movement in Sind like her husband Sir Abdullah Haroon. Nominated to the Women’s Central Subcommittee of the All India Muslim League and was later elected as president of the Sind Provincial Women’s Subcommittee, she worked tirelessly to unite Muslim women under the banner of the Muslim League.
Sikandar Hayat Khan
Sikandar Hayat Khan recognized the interest of the Muslim community and joined Muslim League. Sikandar Hayat supported Muhammad Ali Jinnah in the Pakistan Movement. When the Quaid wanted the Muslim members of the National Defence Council to resign, he not only faithfully carried out the League’s mandate but also persuaded AK Fazl-ul-Haq to do the same.
Khawaja Nazimuddin was a Muslim League Pakistan Movement leader from Bengal. He remained a member of the Muslim League from the first till the last days of his political career. After Independence, he served as the second Governor-General after Jinnah. Jinnah trusted Nazimuddin and had him closely associated with the Simla Conference and with the Cripps and the Cabinet Mission.
Nawab Bahadur Yar Jang
Nawab Bahadur Yar Jung helped unite the Muslims of different Indian states on a single platform under the All-India States Muslim League. He devoted all his energies to fulfilling his cherished dream of creating Pakistan. He had close associations with Jinnah and great respect in his heart for the renowned Muslim poet Allama Dr Mohammad Iqbal.
Maulana Hasrat Mohani
Maulana Hasrat Mohani was the first Muslim politician to forcefully demand full independence for India from every platform – Indian National Congress, the Khilafat Movement, the All India Muslim League, the Jamiat-i-Ulama-i-Islam, the Communist Party or the Majlis-i-Ahrar. After joining the Muslim League, he was an outspoken representative of the League.
Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar
II Chundrigar, as he commonly came to be known, was a constitutional lawyer. In 1936, Chundrigar joined the Muslim League and became a close supporter of Mohammad Ali Jinnah in the Pakistan Movement. He was elected to the Bombay Legislative Assembly from the Ahmedabad district rural constituency in the 1937 provincial elections. From 1940 to 1945, he was president of the Bombay Provincial Muslim League. After Independence, he was one of Jinnah’s nominees as a member of the Muslim League for the interim government. He served as the sixth prime minister of Pakistan.
Iskander Mirza was a military general in the British India armed forces. The British Indian government appointed him as the Joint Defence Secretary of India in 1946 and was responsible for dividing the British Indian Army into the future armies of Pakistan and India. During this time he developed political ties with Liaquat Ali Khan. After Independence, he was appointed as the first defence secretary of Pakistan. He later went on to become the first President of Pakistan.
Malik Ghulam Mohammad
Malik Ghulam Mohammad was a chartered accountant and later a businessman. He was asked by the Nawab of Bahawalpur Sir Sadeq Mohammad Khan V to represent him at the Round Table Conferences. During his time there, he developed ties with Liaquat Ali Khan. After Independence, Liaquat Ali Khan invited Malik Ghulam Mohammad to Pakistan and he was appointed as Pakistan’s first Finance Minister. Helped the country tackle the financial crises. He served as the third Governor-General of Pakistan.
Chaudhry Fazal Ellahi
Chaudhry Fazal Ellahi was a prominent Muslim leader from the Gujrat region. Having represented his area in the regional assemblies on multiple occasions prior to Independence, he worked to propagate the message of the Muslim League in his area. After Independence he took prominent positions within the inaugural cabinet of Liaquat Ali Khan. Later, he became the fifth president of Pakistan after the declaration of the new constitution.
Mohammad Ali Bogra
Mohammad Ali Bogra was a Bengali politician representing the influential Bogra family. He supported the Muslim League and successfully contested elections from their platform. After Independence he joined Pakistan and was tasked with representing Pakistan in Burma then Canada and the United States. In April 1953, he replaced Khawaja Nazimuddin as the third prime minister of Pakistan. Bogra, immediately, started concentrating on the task of formulating a constitution for the state of Pakistan and introduced the famous “Bogra formula,” which required the creation of a bicameral legislature. Later on, in 1962, he became the foreign Minister of Pakistan.
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy
Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy was a lawyer and politician. He pioneered modern political organization in Bengal. He believed in keeping a united Bengal but eventually decided to go with Pakistan. After Independence, he held key posts in the Pakistani set up and was responsible for drafting the first constitution of the country. He eventually became the fifth prime minister of Pakistan in 1956, having previously been a part of the opposition. He targeted to resolve the energy crises, remove economical disparity, and build a massive military, establish the plans for adopting nuclear power, and develop supply-side economic policies.
Malik Feroz Khan Noon
Malik Feroz Khan Noon was a lawyer and diplomat who rose to become one of the most trusted of Sir Winston Churchill’s lieutenants from the Indian services. In 1946, Noon joined the Muslim League, led by Jinnah. He merged his faction of the Unionist Party into the Muslim League and garnered public support for the cause of Pakistan, even allowing the Muslim League to rise to a landslide in the 1945 elections in Punjab which ultimately paved the way for Partition. After Independence, he was sent as Pakistan’s first diplomatic emissary to Saudi Arabia. He was later appointed as the Governor of East Pakistan. Later he became Foreign Minister of Pakistan and then the seventh prime minister of Pakistan.
Muhammad Ali Jauhar
Muhammad Ali Jauhar was an Indian Muslim activist who struggled for freedom against the British Colonial Powers. He had the unique honor of leading three major political movements in British India, including the Indian National Congress, the Muslim League and the Khilafat Movement. He was one of the founders of the All India Muslim League. He played an active role in the Khilafat movement. He attended the First Round Table Conference in 1930, where he effectively argued the case of the Indian Muslims. Delivered a memorable speech against the domination of India and in favor of immediate independence.
Shaukat Ali was brother to Muhammad Ali Jauhar and a prominent leader of the Khilafat movement. He grew disillusioned with Congress and Gandhi’s leadership and opposed the 1928 Nehru Report, demanding separate electorates for Muslims, and attended the First and Second Round Table Conference. Ali organized the world Muslim Conference in Jerusalem. In 1936, Ali joined the All Indian Muslim League and become a close political ally of and campaigner for Mohammad Ali Jinnah.
Maulana Zafar Ali Khan
Maulana Zafar Ali Khan was a writer, poet, and translator. He eagerly supported Quaid-e-Azam and the Pakistan Movement. He wrote intrepidly against the policies of the British and was a stern critic of Congress and its leaders. He started several movements such as Tehreek Ittehad-e-Millat and Neeli Posh Tehreek under adverse circumstances. He gave a new life to freedom-loving people. Wrote a series of articles entitled Sarzamin-i-beyaain (The Land Without Law) dealing with the people of NWFP (now KP) having some special grievances against the British administration.
Sir Adamjee Haji Dawood
Sir Adamjee Haji Dawood was a businessman and philanthropist. His work for Muslims was recognized and acknowledged by Muhammad Ali Jinnah, who became a good friend and appointed him advisor to the freedom movement of the Muslims, which eventually led to the creation of Pakistan. When Jinnah appealed to help ameliorate the financial crisis of the new state, Sir Adamjee historically said “your Problem is solved.” During Pakistan’s financial crisis in its early days, he wrote a blank cheque secured against all his assets. His sacrifice enabled the country to tackle this crisis successfully.
Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq
Abul Kasem Fazlul Huq was a lawyer, and writer. He was a key figure in the Indian independence movement and later the Pakistan Movement. He had the unique honor of concurrently serving as the President of the All India Muslim League and General Secretary of the Indian National Congress. Most famously, he presented the Lahore Resolution calling for the formation of Pakistan. After Independence, Huq enjoyed prominent positions in Pakistani politics, even serving as chief minister of Bengal.
Ahmed Ghulam Ali Chagla
Ahmed Ghulam Ali Chagla was a writer and musical composer. In 1948, Chagla was appointed as a member of the National Anthem Committee (NAC) of Pakistan, tasked with creating the national anthem of Pakistan ahead of the impending state visit to Pakistan by the Shah of Iran in 1950. The NAC examined several different tunes and selected a tune presented by Chagla which was submitted for formal approval. Chagla then produced the musical composition in collaboration with other committee members including Radio Pakistan’s first director-general Zulfiqar Ali Bukhari and musician Nihal Abdullah and assisted by the Pakistan Navy band.
Hafeez Jalandhari was a writer and poet. As an active participant in the Pakistan Movement, he used his writings to inspire people for the cause of Pakistan. After Partition, on February 23, 1949, the government formed a committee to prepare Pakistan’s national anthem. 723 people competed to write the national anthem. Of these, Hafeez Jalandhari’s lyrics were selected as the national anthem of Pakistan.
Bi Amma Begum
Abadi Bano Begum was a prominent voice in the Indian independence movement. She was also known as Bi Amma Begum was one of the first Muslim women to actively take part in politics and was part of the movement to free India from the British Raj. She was also mother to Moulana Johar and Moulana Shaukat Ali and convinced them to struggle for the Muslims of the subcontinent.
Begum Zari Sarfaraz
Begum Zari Sarfaraz was a noted early political activist and committed social worker of North-West Frontier Province (now Khyber Pakhtunkhwa), Pakistan. She was born in a Pashtun family of Mardan. Her father was Sarfaraz Khan, a wealthy landlord of the area.